Welcome to the ABA! Bell Talk Forums Large Bells U.S.N. Ships Bells

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    • #11790
      Carolyn Whitlock
      Participant

      http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq83-1.htm

      Ships’ Bells

      Bells have a centuries-long tradition of varied use in the navies and merchant fleets of the world. Signaling, keeping time, and sounding alarms are important in a ship’s routine and readiness. Their functional and ceremonial uses have made them a symbol of considerable significance to the United States Navy.

      Origins

      Bells cast from metal were first developed in the Bronze Age, achieving a particularly high level of sophistication in China. During the European Middle Ages, they were used by Christians to signal divine services and make special announcements. Christian and Buddhist monasteries historically used them to regulate daily activity, conceptually similar to later timekeeping in the U.S. Navy. The Catholics consider bells a representation of the voice of God and of paradise.

      One of the earliest recorded mentions of the shipboard bell was on the British ship Grace Dieu about 1485. Some ten years later an inventory of the English ship Regent reveals that this ship carried two “wache bells”.

      Timekeeping

      Before the advent of the chronometer time at sea was measured by the trickle of sand through a half – hour glass. One of the ship’s boys had the duty of watching the glass and turning it when the sand had run out. When he turned the glass, he struck the bell as a signal that he had performed this vital function. From this ringing of the bell as the glass was turned evolved the tradition of striking the bell once at the end of the first half hour of a four hour watch, twice after the first hour, etc., until eight bells marked the end of the four hour watch. The process was repeated for the succeeding watches. This age-old practice of sounding the bell on the hour and half hour has its place in the nuclear and missile oriented United States Navy at the dawn of the Twenty-First Century, regulating daily routine, just as it did on our historic vessels under sail in the late Eighteenth Century.

      Safety and Communication

      The sounding of a ship’s bell found a natural application as a warning signal to other vessels in poor visibility and fog. In 1676 one Henry Teonage serving as a chaplain in the British Mediterranean Fleet recorded , “so great a fog that we were fain to ring our bells, beat drums, and fire muskets often to keep us from falling foul one upon another”. Ringing a ship’s bell in fog became customary. In 1858, British Naval Regulations made it mandatory in that function. Today, maritime law requires all ships to carry an efficient bell.

      American ships of the Revolutionary War period and our early national years adopted many of the practices and traditions of the British Royal Navy, including the use of bells. In 1798, Paul Revere cast a bell weighing 242 pounds for the frigate Constitution, also known today by its nickname “Old Ironsides”.

      It is of interest to note that the use of a ship’s bell contributed to the richest single prize captured by the American Navy during the War of Independence. While a Continental Squadron under Commodore Whipple lay-to, wrapped in Newfoundland fog in a July morning in 1779, the sound of ships’ bells and an occasional signal gun could be heard a short distance off. When the fog lifted the Americans discovered that they had fallen in with the richly-laden enemy Jamaica Fleet. Ten ships were captured as prizes, which – together with their cargo – were valued at more than a million dollars.

      Alarms

      The bell is an essential link in a ship’s emergency alarm system. In the event of a fire, the bell is rung rapidly for at least five seconds, followed by one, two or three rings to indicate the location of a fire – Forward, amidships, or aft respectively.

      Navy Ceremonies and Events

      The bell is used to signal the presence of important persons. When the ship’s captain, a flag officer, or other important person arrives or departs, watch standers make an announcement to the ship and ring the bell. This tradition extends to major naval command transitions, often held aboard vessels associated with the command.

      Bells in religious ceremonies

      The bell’s connection to religious origins continues. Originating in the British Royal Navy, it is a custom to baptize a child under the ship’s bell; sometimes the bell is used as a christening bowl, filled with water for the ceremony. Once the baptism is completed, the child’s name may be inscribed inside the bell. The bell remains with the ship while in service and with the Department of the Navy after decommissioning. In this way, an invisible tie is created between the country, the ship and its citizens.

      Bells have been loaned or provided to churches as memorials to those vessels; this practice has been discontinued in favor of displaying bells with namesake states or municipalities, with museums, and with naval commands and newer namesake vessels.

      Maintenance and upkeep

      Traditionally, the bell is maintained by the ship’s cook, while the ship’s whistle is maintained by the ship’s bugler.

      In actual practice, the bell is maintained by a person of the ship’s division charged with the upkeep of that part of the ship where the bell is located. In such a case a deck seaman or quartermaster striker or signalman striker may have the bell-shining duty.

      Disposition and continuing Navy use

      In addition to its shipboard roles, the bell serves a ceremonial and memorial function after the ship has served its Navy career.

      U.S. Navy bells are part of the many artifacts removed from decommissioned vessels preserved by the Naval History and Heritage Command. They may be provided on loan to new namesake ships; naval commands with an historical mission or functional connection; and to museums and other institutions that are interpreting specific historical themes and displays of naval history. Bells remain the permanent property of the US Government and the Department of the Navy. These serve to inspire and to remind our naval forces and personnel of their honor, courage, and commitment to the defense of our nation.

      Bells remain a powerful and tangible reminder of the history, heritage, and accomplishments of the naval service.

      Related links:

      Navy Ship and Motor Boat Bells – Bureau of Construction and Repair Specification, 1918

    • #16435
      Carolyn Whitlock
      Participant

      Source: history.navy.mil/branches/org2-10.htm

      Navy Ship and Motor Boat Bells

      Bureau of Construction and Repair Specification, 1918

      Adapted from, The Naval Articifer’s Manual: Text, questions, and general information for deck articifers in the United States Navy, compiled and arranged by Assistant Naval Constructor (T.) McCall Pate, USN. United States Naval Institute, 1918

      General –

      To be of best quality material and workmanship, free from all defects and blemishes which may affect the serviceability or appearance of the bell.

      Composition and Acoustic Properties –

      To be cast from a composition of about 78 percent of best new Lake Superior copper and about 22 percent of new block tin. The casting to be homogeneous in character and free from internal stresses or strains which may cause the bell to crack. To possess full, clear, round, and far – reaching tones of keys indicated in table forming part of these specifications.

      Finish –

      To be plain, bright finished on the outside only.

      Bell Clapper –

      Bell clapper to be of gun – metal composition, with suitable eye in end for attaching lanyard. The supporting eyebolt and nut of motor – boat bell to be of Tobin bronze or gun – metal composition. The clapper of the ship’s bell to be supported by a bronze lug, which is to be secured by a gun – metal composition or Tobin bronze T – head bolt, nut, and plate washer. Clapper pin to be of Tobin bronze or gun – metal composition.

      Lettering –

      The letters “U.S.S.”, the name of the vessel, and the year of completion, which will be specifically stated in each requisition, are to be cast in relief or engraved and filled with black enamel on each bell, the size for the letters to be as called for in the table forming part of these specifications. All ornamental beading is to be cast in relief on bell. Bells for motor boats and power – propelled vessels to which a name is not to be assigned should have the letters “U.S.N.” only.

      Plans –

      The shape, size, weight, tone, size of letters, and size of ship on which various sizes of bells are to be used are indicated in the illustrations, Figure 32 (Ship’s bell) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/i05000/i05045c.htm, and Figure 33 (Motor Boat Bell) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/i05000/i05046c.htm%5B, and Table 10 (Navy Ship and Motor Boat Bell Weights, Tones, and Dimensions) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/i05000/i05044r.jpg.

      Tolerance –

      (a) A variation not exceeding ¼ inch will be permitted on all dimensions, except on shanks, where exact dimensions are required for fitting in supports.

      (b) The following variations will be permitted in the approximate weight of bell given in the table, which does not include the weight of clapper and fittings:

      – Not more than 5 percent above or below weight given for 20 -, 30 -, and 60 – pound bells.

      – Not more than 4 percent above or below weight given for 75 – pound bells.

      – Not more than 3 percent above or below weight given for 200 – and 300 – pound bells.

      – Not more than 2 percent above or below weight given for 600 – and 800 – pound bells.

      For further reading:

      Wede, Karl. The Ship’s Bell: Its History and Romance. New York: South Street Seaport Museum, 1972.

      Note: For more detailed information on bell design and manufacturing, researchers should consult Navy records retired to the National Archives and Records Administration.

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